As far as the causes of miscarriages are concerned, a chromosome abnormality in conception is among the most common reasons of any pregnancy loss and the egg usually is responsible for giving an unsuitable number of chromosomes.
With less than half of the eggs of a woman really being reproductive and capable of conception, many of these ‘chromosomally abnormal eggs’ fail to be recognized as pregnancies as very often they are not able to divide for an embryo or fetus production, and sometimes even if the embryo is implanted, a conception loss occurs very soon.
What most often happens is that during the formation of a gamete, i.e. the collection of the egg and sperm, certain genetic material is lost. Now there arise possibilities wherein the lost genetic material can get attached to another chromosome, resulting in an excess of the genetic matter in another gamete. Such surpluses and losses of genetic material are inapt and result in a pregnancy loss. Those couples who have faced many miscarriages should have their chromosomes tested in order to ascertain whether there is any risk attached to their chromosomes of forming ‘incorrect’ gametes with an inappropriate number of chromosomes. Such an evaluation will help the couple decide in time if they need to go for a donor sperm or donor egg.
As mentioned earlier, increasing age also raises the risk of a miscarriage or pregnancy loss as women over 35 face more risk of chromosome abnormalities.
Also, certain abnormalities in the functioning of the uterus raise the chances of a miscarriage. Women with fibroid uterine tumors also stand endangered as far as miscarriages are concerned. However, an incomplete uterus fusion is even more risky. In the case of the duplication of only the uterine body and cavity, called “bicornuate” or two horned uterus, the risk is about one third. Similarly, another incomplete uterus fusion form named ‘septate uterus’ has deficient blood supply to the septum, due to which there is a two-third risk of a pregnancy loss. A partial septum is found to be 60%-75% risky, while a total septum faces huge risk of up to 90%. Nevertheless, there are easy surgical operations available today to remove a uterine septum and clear all risks of a miscarriage.
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